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‘The wrong formula’: Education advocates call for new approach to how schools get coronavirus aid

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Schools across the state face additional costs related to helping students connect to the internet from home.

Michigan school systems got vastly different amounts of per-student federal coronavirus aid —  even when the districts serve roughly the same percentage of low-income families. These disparities raise questions about fairness and also about how any future federal aid will be handed out.

The Detroit Public Schools Community District, for example, with 81% of its students eligible for the federal lunch program, received $1,684 per student.

Outside the district, Rutherford Winans Academy, a Detroit charter, received $640 in federal aid per pupil, even though 83% of students qualify for the lunch program, which is linked to family income. Meanwhile, Bangor Public Schools, a rural district in western Michigan where 80% of students are eligible for the lunch program, received $278 per student.

With Michigan facing a $2.39 billion shortfall in its education budget, schools across the state are bracing for what could be the largest cut in state history. At the same time, they are anticipating increased costs — $1 billion statewide, according to one education group’s estimate — linked to buying masks and providing internet connections for students.

So far, $350 million in coronavirus aid funds is being distributed to Michigan school districts using the same notoriously complex formula as a longstanding federal program that is supposed to provide extra support to children from low-income families.

The Detroit district was one of a handful of winners, along with city districts like Flint and Benton Harbor whose enrollments have declined in recent decades. While education advocates say there’s little doubt that those districts need the extra help, many are hoping that Congress will choose a different formula next time.

“It’s the wrong formula to use, and we’ve had conversations with our congressional delegation,” said Bob McCann, project director for the School Finance Research Collaborative, a nonpartisan group that advocates for the state to spend more on students from low-income families and those with disabilities.

“Districts with similar needs, one may get significantly more out of this formula,” he said. 

The rules that shape the formula have become more complex and confusing since the Title I program was created in 1965. It can be difficult to pin down why some districts get more money per student than similar districts.

“There are many factors that influence a district’s final allocation and these often make a comparison based on a per-student amount appear perplexing, as in the case of Detroit Public Schools Community District,” said Shoua Vang, an analyst for the Michigan Department of Education.

A major reason for the disparities in Michigan is a so-called “hold harmless” rule, which sends additional money to districts that used to have larger populations, Vang said. The gap could also be caused by a rule that allows districts to claim more Title I funds if they have a larger number of students living in poverty, as opposed to a larger percentage of such students.

The five districts in Michigan that received the most federal COVID-19 aid — Detroit, Pontiac, Dearborn, Grand Rapids, and Lansing — are set to receive 33% of the total aid to districts across the state. Detroit alone received 24% of the total. Yet those top five districts enroll 5% of students statewide, and roughly 10% of Michigan students who qualify for the federal lunch program.

“We believe that the CARES Act funding appropriately provides [the Detroit district] with additional federal funding to address unexpected COVID-related ‎costs to support our students, employees, and families,” said Detroit Superintendent Nikolai Vitti. With the infusion of federal aid, the district expects to make few cuts through the pandemic, even accounting for severe anticipated state budget cuts.

Nora Gordon, a professor at Georgetown University who has testified in federal court as an expert on Title I, argues that Congress should use a different formula, one that simply sends more money to districts for each poor student they enroll, if there is another round of federal aid.

Designing such a formula shouldn’t be too difficult, Gordon said: Congress has done it before. Coronavirus relief was sent to governors’ offices using roughly this formula. Another option, used to aid schools during the last economic downturn, about 10 years ago, would send aid to states based on their enrollment and instruct them to distribute the money using their existing school funding formulas.

Mike Addonizio, a professor of education at Wayne State University, said it makes sense that so much of the federal COVID-19 aid went to the Detroit district and others that enroll many students in poverty. Students living in poverty are less likely to have the technologies and other support that they need to effectively learn from home.

“You get the impression that the money is going to the right place,” he said. He added that it’s no surprise that the federal aid package wasn’t perfect: It was designed in a hurry as lawmakers rushed to limit the economic fallout from the pandemic. 

“When you’re in an emergency situation like we’re in now, you can’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good,” he said.

But critics have noted that the first round of federal aid wasn’t spread widely enough. As the number of new coronavirus cases in Michigan declines, officials are signaling that a return to in-person instruction in the fall is becoming more likely. That means all schools across the state — even those that received much less federal aid — will be forced to spend money on masks, hand sanitizer, thermometers, and online connections for students learning from home.

As education experts predict a sharp learning loss due to the coronavirus, it’s especially important to make sure no students miss out on federal aid, said Jack Elsey, director of the Detroit Children’s Fund, a nonprofit that supports several charter schools in the city as well as the main district.

“I want to know, just like any Michigan parent would want to know, whether children are getting what they deserve,” he said. “I’d be pretty upset if I learned that the child down the street was getting more money because somebody who lives hundreds of miles away couldn’t come up with a formula that was more exact and more equitable.”

Wanda Cook-Robinson, the top schools official in Oakland County, which borders Detroit, told the Detroit Free Press last week that she is hoping the next round of federal aid will be distributed differently.

Charter school advocates, who have long criticized the Title I formula as favoring larger traditional districts are also pushing for a change. Across the state, charter schools received more per pupil than traditional districts because they enroll a higher proportion of students from low-income families. But in cities like Detroit and Pontiac, charter schools received much less per student than the city districts.

“We’ve certainly raised it with the department of education,” said Dan Quisenberry, president of the Michigan Association of Public Schools Academies, of the first COVID-19 relief program. “It’s like, wait a second, how did that happen?”

Some districts received more federal aid per student than others
District COVID Funds Enrollment Per Pupil COVID Funds
Detroit Public Schools Community District $85,120,566 50,520 1,685
Flint School District of the City of $9,450,368 3,700 2,554
Dearborn City School District $8,487,559 20,590 412
Grand Rapids Public Schools $7,990,554 14,373 556
Lansing Public School District $6,462,933 10,506 615
Saginaw School District of the City of $4,880,335 5,227 934
Pontiac City School District $4,260,253 3,944 1,080
Kalamazoo Public Schools $3,983,674 12,780 312
Benton Harbor Area Schools $3,245,027 1,761 1,843
Hamtramck School District of the City of $3,171,464 3,353 946
Warren Consolidated Schools $2,938,071 13,355 220
Wayne-Westland Community School District $2,902,872 10,184 285
Muskegon Public Schools of the City of $2,849,914 3,594 793
Taylor School District $2,712,858 5,896 460
Jackson Public Schools $2,690,416 4,678 575
Utica Community Schools $2,507,752 26,539 94
Battle Creek Public Schools $2,441,698 3,790 644
Port Huron Area School District $2,425,114 7,849 309
Bay City School District $1,865,141 7,271 257
Ypsilanti Community Schools $1,816,538 3,813 476
Eastpointe Community Schools $1,668,375 2,464 677
Kentwood Public Schools $1,568,733 9,189 171
Southfield Public School District $1,384,613 5,523 251
Beecher Community School District $1,372,083 708 1,938
Lincoln Park School District of the City of $1,350,747 4,915 275
Carman-Ainsworth Community Schools $1,341,663 4,308 311
Romulus Community Schools $1,332,414 2,484 536
Crestwood School District $1,318,568 3,870 341
Van Dyke Public Schools $1,314,680 2,258 582
Ann Arbor Public Schools $1,291,743 17,942 72
Westwood Community School District $1,275,724 1,569 813
Roseville Community Schools $1,222,874 4,530 270
Cesar Chavez Academy $1,135,270 2,279 498
Monroe Public Schools $1,106,415 5,136 215
Waterford School District $1,105,156 8,136 136
Fitzgerald Public Schools $1,076,948 2,371 454
Traverse City Area Public Schools $1,030,828 9,437 109
Livonia Public Schools School District $1,011,387 13,902 73
Chandler Park Academy $995,641 2,307 432
Chippewa Valley Schools $985,772 15,588 63
Michigan Virtual Charter Academy $967,078 2,819 343
Redford Union Schools District No. 1 $939,095 2,295 409
Van Buren Public Schools $935,543 4,489 208
LAnse Creuse Public Schools $898,068 10,069 89
Marshall Public Schools $898,067 2,797 321
Walled Lake Consolidated Schools $893,631 13,231 68
River Rouge School District of the City of $892,492 2,422 368
Michigan Great Lakes Virtual Academy $869,069 3,130 278
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD) $843,184 1,909 442
Ecorse Public Schools $835,912 1,098 761
West Ottawa Public School District $834,052 6,629 126
Mount Clemens Community School District $828,338 949 873
Plymouth-Canton Community Schools $797,150 17,257 46
Wyoming Public Schools $779,835 4,087 191
Oak Park School District of the City of $778,680 4,393 177
Old Redford Academy $776,485 1,551 501
Bridgeport-Spaulding Community School District $759,400 1,503 505
Harrison Community Schools $751,375 1,351 556
Niles Community Schools $727,797 3,539 206
Adrian Public Schools $727,420 2,863 254
Star International Academy $717,890 1,637 439
Hazel Park School District of the City of $695,735 3,061 227
Owosso Public Schools $690,406 3,019 229
Alpena Public Schools $689,692 3,643 189
Washington-Parks Academy $685,975 1,566 438
Greenville Public Schools $684,861 3,624 189
Holland City School District $684,151 3,188 215
Detroit Academy of Arts and Sciences $683,595 1,059 646
Mt. Morris Consolidated Schools $677,246 1,725 393
Mt. Pleasant City School District $672,353 3,551 189
Cadillac Area Public Schools $658,206 3,123 211
Detroit Service Learning Academy $658,082 1,316 500
Lincoln Consolidated School District $656,249 3,722 176
South Redford School District $654,798 3,105 211
Farmington Public School District $626,951 9,340 67
Comstock Public Schools $626,939 1,754 357
Lighthouse Academy $624,836 358 1,745
Portage Public Schools $616,070 8,767 70
Melvindale-North Allen Park Schools $612,653 3,047 201
Midland Public Schools $608,560 7,695 79
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies (PSAD) $602,527 1,300 463
Dowagiac Union School District $598,840 2,178 275
Bradford Academy $596,048 1,282 465
Woodhaven-Brownstown School District $589,990 5,434 109
Houghton Lake Community Schools $584,702 1,210 483
Grand Blanc Community Schools $578,600 8,302 70
Coldwater Community Schools $567,595 2,863 198
Garden City Public Schools $567,359 3,627 156
Sturgis Public Schools $563,579 3,078 183
Lapeer Community Schools $560,998 4,883 115
Ionia Public Schools $559,160 2,983 187
Advanced Technology Academy $545,814 1,273 429
Voyageur Academy $544,257 1,178 462
Clintondale Community Schools $544,257 2,742 198
Riverside Academy $544,179 962 566
Center Line Public Schools $541,119 2,530 214
Pontiac Academy for Excellence $538,290 641 840
Gladwin Community Schools $536,225 1,613 332
Coloma Community Schools $534,064 1,299 411
West Branch-Rose City Area Schools $527,931 2,016 262
Harper Woods The School District of the City of $523,619 2,459 213
Orchard View Schools $521,063 2,246 232
Holt Public Schools $520,440 5,425 96
Godwin Heights Public Schools $514,055 2,028 253
Three Rivers Community Schools $511,824 2,518 203
Chippewa Hills School District $499,343 1,923 260
Summit Academy North $498,580 1,803 277
Huron Valley Schools $498,209 8,778 57
Godfrey-Lee Public Schools $489,482 1,788 274
Escanaba Area Public Schools $486,334 2,310 211
Roscommon Area Public Schools $484,322 868 558
Detroit Edison Public School Academy $484,135 1,307 370
Sault Ste. Marie Area Schools $482,925 1,934 250
Davison Community Schools $470,208 5,738 82
Gaylord Community Schools $462,830 2,975 156
Dearborn Heights School District #7 $462,066 2,522 183
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD) $461,885 1,554 297
Legacy Charter Academy $460,745 751 614
Kelloggsville Public Schools $460,232 2,377 194
Kearsley Community School District $455,017 2,941 155
Wyandotte School District of the City of $451,944 4,673 97
Waverly Community Schools $451,366 2,962 152
Kenowa Hills Public Schools $450,365 3,122 144
Whittemore-Prescott Area Schools $447,567 727 616
Hope of Detroit Academy $447,170 1,083 413
Crawford AuSable Schools $445,239 1,617 275
Baldwin Community Schools $444,164 501 887
Plymouth Educational Center Charter School $439,908 493 892
Lakeview Sch. District (Calhoun) $439,607 4,070 108
Southgate Community School District $436,756 3,436 127
George Washington Carver Academy $434,621 516 842
Farwell Area Schools $431,438 1,069 404
Westwood Heights Schools $429,455 1,594 269
Cheboygan Area Schools $429,097 1,585 271
Morley Stanwood Community Schools $428,895 1,172 366
Grand Haven Area Public Schools $428,270 5,947 72
Fraser Public Schools $422,899 4,829 88
Conner Creek Academy East $422,316 953 443
Detroit Leadership Academy $418,891 714 587
Alma Public Schools $417,967 2,027 206
Crescent Academy $415,341 895 464
Regent Park Scholars Charter Academy $410,300 734 559
Ludington Area School District $409,725 2,157 190
Reeths-Puffer Schools $407,537 3,564 114
Michigan Mathematics and Science Academy $407,160 902 451
Swartz Creek Community Schools $406,087 3,643 111
Howell Public Schools $402,576 6,972 58
Bridge Academy $401,918 874 460
Reed City Area Public Schools $395,602 1,438 275
International Academy of Flint $392,109 978 401
Oakland International Academy $391,672 842 465
Northwest Community Schools $389,351 3,620 108
Marvin L. Winans Academy of Performing Arts $381,977 401 953
Detroit Community Schools $381,759 707 540
Universal Academy $381,140 675 565
Linden Charter Academy $377,894 764 495
Oakridge Public Schools $377,428 1,992 189
Muskegon Heights Public School Academy System $373,622 592 631
Clio Area School District $373,426 2,823 132
Lakeview Community Schools (Montcalm) $372,834 1,084 344
Flushing Community Schools $372,071 4,211 88
Bendle Public Schools $372,048 1,141 326
Gwinn Area Community Schools $371,913 1,014 367
Belding Area School District $370,244 1,730 214
Berrien Springs Public Schools $370,085 3,773 98
University Yes Academy $369,655 538 687
Western School District $367,924 2,912 126
Oscoda Area Schools $366,594 1,162 315
Academy of Warren $363,769 705 516
Fruitport Community Schools $363,366 2,638 138
Covenant House Academy Detroit $362,315 518 699
Detroit Premier Academy $362,047 722 501
Ferndale Public Schools $361,120 3,098 117
Saginaw Township Community Schools $360,971 4,807 75
Grosse Pointe Public Schools $359,071 7,379 49
Warrendale Charter Academy $359,012 741 484
Hillsdale Community Schools $358,718 1,352 265
South Haven Public Schools $357,934 1,905 188
Michigan Connections Academy $355,815 1,618 220
Michigan Educational Choice Center $355,437 292 1,217
Grandville Public Schools $353,986 5,612 63
Big Rapids Public Schools $349,590 2,088 167
Bangor Township Schools $348,885 2,566 136
Hart Public School District $348,369 1,265 275
Central Montcalm Public Schools $345,680 1,466 236
Timberland Academy $344,170 674 511
Cornerstone Health and Technology School $343,116 532 645
Airport Community Schools $341,605 2,614 131
Flagship Charter Academy $341,543 706 484
Holly Area School District $338,942 3,242 105
Burton Glen Charter Academy $336,840 643 524
Menominee Area Public Schools $336,461 1,261 267
Kalkaska Public Schools $335,503 1,443 233
East Lansing School District $335,043 3,689 91
American International Academy $335,013 739 453
Grand Ledge Public Schools $330,164 5,344 62
Walton Charter Academy $327,729 819 400
Paw Paw Public School District $327,433 2,160 152
Lamphere Public Schools $326,255 2,419 135
Romeo Community Schools $325,957 5,017 65
Vassar Public Schools $324,020 1,065 304
East China School District $324,008 3,944 82
Quincy Community Schools $322,815 1,210 267
Madison District Public Schools $322,372 1,110 290
Richfield Public School Academy $321,020 648 495
Madison-Carver Academy $320,890 628 511
The New Standard Academy $319,667 676 473
Clare Public Schools $319,019 1,639 195
Fremont Public School District $317,587 2,107 151
Great Oaks Academy $315,618 751 420
Oakside Scholars Charter Academy $314,692 792 397
Hanley International Academy $313,921 652 481
Hartford Public Schools $313,259 1,323 237
Frontier International Academy $313,191 832 376
Newaygo Public School District $312,519 1,596 196
Croswell-Lexington Community Schools $312,390 2,053 152
Eau Claire Public Schools $312,009 767 407
Highland Park Public School Academy System $310,824 313 993
Westfield Charter Academy $309,405 830 373
Detroit Merit Charter Academy $309,064 751 412
Tri County Area Schools $309,056 1,826 169
Bangor Public Schools (Van Buren) $307,539 1,104 279
Allegan Public Schools $306,177 2,380 129
Detroit Enterprise Academy $303,393 743 408
William C. Abney Academy $296,720 345 860
Mona Shores Public School District $295,620 3,897 76
Sparta Area Schools $295,303 2,438 121
Dr. Joseph F. Pollack Academic Center of Excellence $295,178 757 390
Beaverton Rural Schools $294,309 1,009 292
Rudyard Area Schools $291,050 594 490
West Bloomfield School District $291,009 5,311 55
Charlotte Public Schools $290,003 2,509 116
Hope Academy $289,206 501 577
Shelby Public Schools $283,547 1,246 228
Vista Charter Academy $283,348 724 391
Clarenceville School District $282,096 1,859 152
Comstock Park Public Schools $281,060 1,835 153
Cedar Springs Public Schools $280,911 3,556 79
Ironwood Area Schools of Gogebic County $279,620 750 373
Hastings Area School District $278,922 2,571 108
The Dearborn Academy $278,614 516 540
Academy for Business and Technology $277,164 561 494
White Cloud Public Schools $275,429 950 290
South Lake Schools $274,910 1,567 175
Northview Public Schools $274,479 3,305 83
Lansing Charter Academy $274,236 454 604
Anchor Bay School District $272,713 5,708 48
Covert Public Schools $271,883 368 739
Evart Public Schools $271,452 869 312
Warren Woods Public Schools $271,288 3,223 84
Standish-Sterling Community Schools $271,108 1,548 175
Lake City Area School District $270,520 1,216 222
East Jackson Community Schools $270,191 887 305
Buchanan Community Schools $269,965 1,564 173
Bloomingdale Public School District $266,272 1,177 226
Countryside Academy $264,137 766 345
Highpoint Virtual Academy of Michigan $262,920 978 269
Maple Valley Schools $261,508 962 272
Central Academy $260,492 621 419
Whitehall District Schools $259,045 2,033 127
Hamtramck Academy $258,845 541 478
LakeVille Community School District $257,791 1,143 226
Grant Public School District $256,128 1,788 143
Bronson Community School District $254,459 1,074 237
Pine River Area Schools $253,288 1,044 243
Rochester Community School District $252,916 15,300 17
Universal Learning Academy $252,884 701 361
Public Schools of Calumet Laurium & Keweenaw $252,771 1,540 164
Manistee Area Public Schools $252,251 1,344 188
Benton Harbor Charter School Academy $250,624 486 516
Eaton Rapids Public Schools $248,688 2,252 110
Harper Creek Community Schools $247,997 2,793 89
Caro Community Schools $247,356 1,629 152
W-A-Y Academy $247,066 309 800
Marlette Community Schools $245,731 785 313
Lake Shore Public Schools (Macomb) $245,442 3,447 71
Benzie County Central Schools $244,906 1,345 182
Reach Charter Academy $243,975 593 411
Marquette Area Public Schools $243,519 3,221 76
River City Scholars Charter Academy $242,617 458 530
North Saginaw Charter Academy $242,607 559 434
Quest Charter Academy $241,954 771 314
Fennville Public Schools $241,518 1,282 188
Flat Rock Community Schools $240,927 1,940 124
Cass City Public Schools $240,177 962 250
Mason County Central Schools $239,669 1,351 177
Distinctive College Prep. $238,191 603 395
Charlton Heston Academy $238,088 698 341
Mason Public Schools (Ingham) $236,496 3,246 73
Mesick Consolidated Schools $234,463 595 394
Tawas Area Schools $234,157 1,207 194
Great Lakes Cyber Academy $233,964 1,057 221
New Paradigm Glazer-Loving Academy $232,769 311 748
Bedford Public Schools $232,455 4,262 55
David Ellis Academy West $232,410 714 326
Hesperia Community Schools $232,355 887 262
Atherton Community Schools $232,036 832 279
Francis Reh PSA $230,993 490 471
Arts and Technology Academy of Pontiac $229,742 811 283
Gibraltar School District $229,209 3,639 63
Michigan Center School District $228,892 1,368 167
Plainwell Community Schools $228,559 2,794 82
Durand Area Schools $225,680 1,296 174
Landmark Academy $222,715 802 278
Insight School of Michigan $222,457 780 285
Carrollton Public Schools $222,341 1,814 123
Montabella Community Schools $221,764 791 280
Pinconning Area Schools $221,507 1,236 179
Dove Academy of Detroit $221,331 465 476
Laurus Academy $220,516 734 300
Prevail Academy $218,266 561 389
George Crockett Academy $217,563 432 504
Carson City-Crystal Area Schools $217,485 865 251
Brandywine Community Schools $216,197 1,349 160
Caledonia Community Schools $216,144 4,775 45
Taylor Exemplar Academy $215,685 777 278
Imlay City Community Schools $214,654 1,965 109
Cassopolis Public Schools $214,424 911 235
Troy School District $214,271 13,062 16
Endeavor Charter Academy $214,256 643 333
Riverview Community School District $214,011 2,905 74
Mancelona Public Schools $213,185 939 227
Madison School District (Lenawee) $212,611 1,637 130
Fortis Academy $212,071 673 315
Lowell Area Schools $210,815 3,737 56
Algonac Community School District $210,729 1,404 150
Chesaning Union Schools $210,239 1,427 147
Success Virtual Learning Centers of Michigan $209,998 1,429 147
Global Preparatory Academy $209,355 117 1,789
Ridge Park Charter Academy $208,978 561 373
Fenton Area Public Schools $208,450 3,446 60
Camden-Frontier School $207,780 513 405
Montrose Community Schools $207,711 1,475 141
Holton Public Schools $207,535 836 248
Public Schools of Petoskey $206,644 2,821 73
Caniff Liberty Academy $206,486 474 436
Linden Community Schools $206,278 2,677 77
Timbuktu Academy $205,053 391 524
Pansophia Academy $204,132 338 604
Three Oaks Public School Academy $203,440 368 553
Tipton Academy $203,402 477 426
Parchment School District $203,108 1,618 126
St. Johns Public Schools $202,313 2,796 72
Metro Charter Academy $202,036 626 323
Windemere Park Charter Academy $202,006 674 300
Mattawan Consolidated School $199,989 3,786 53
Avondale School District $199,484 3,822 52
Wayland Union Schools $199,432 3,041 66
MacDowell Preparatory Academy $199,037 381 522
Detroit Innovation Academy $199,010 376 529
St. Louis Public Schools $198,969 1,038 192
Paramount Charter Academy $197,541 405 488
Millington Community Schools $196,926 1,132 174
Tahquamenon Area Schools $196,479 576 341
Berkley School District $196,117 4,259 46
Hale Area Schools $195,242 335 583
Galesburg-Augusta Community Schools $195,107 1,004 194
Jenison Public Schools $194,795 5,156 38
West Iron County Public Schools $194,684 866 225
Shepherd Public Schools $194,458 1,764 110
North Branch Area Schools $194,277 2,379 82
Inland Lakes Schools $193,459 650 298
Trenton Public Schools $193,046 2,518 77
Gull Lake Community Schools $191,548 3,156 61
Reading Community Schools $191,064 706 271
Mayville Community School District $191,010 583 328
Brandon School District in the Counties of Oakland and Lapeer $190,356 2,287 83
Yale Public Schools $190,249 1,861 102
Keys Grace Academy $189,767 482 394
Richmond Community Schools $188,848 1,449 130
Lakewood Public Schools $188,742 1,790 105
Tecumseh Public Schools $188,301 2,679 70
White Pigeon Community Schools $186,948 776 241
Watervliet School District $185,947 1,483 125
Lakeshore School District (Berrien) $185,703 2,796 66
Montague Area Public Schools $185,594 1,479 125
Pennfield Schools $184,844 2,211 84
Oxford Community Schools $184,544 5,793 32
Allen Park Public Schools $183,757 3,831 48
Constantine Public School District $182,551 1,483 123
Knapp Charter Academy $181,860 705 258
Rockford Public Schools $181,244 7,896 23
Northridge Academy $181,234 210 863
West MI Academy of Environmental Science $180,982 791 229
Bad Axe Public Schools $180,879 892 203
Manton Consolidated Schools $179,047 955 187
West Village Academy $178,985 369 485
Fowlerville Community Schools $178,562 2,718 66
Jalen Rose Leadership Academy $178,194 420 424
Forest Area Community Schools $178,193 506 352
Clarkston Community School District $178,052 7,561 24
Ovid-Elsie Area Schools $177,522 1,489 119
Marion Public Schools $177,338 409 434
Haslett Public Schools $177,263 2,727 65
Kaleva Norman Dickson School District $177,039 527 336
Creative Montessori Academy $176,997 800 221
Martin Luther King Jr. Education Center Academy $176,990 447 396
Stockbridge Community Schools $176,621 1,245 142
Manistique Area Schools $175,781 774 227
Grand Blanc Academy $175,594 337 521
Joy Preparatory Academy $174,837 293 597
Dexter Community School District $174,666 3,633 48
East Jordan Public Schools $174,600 808 216
Brown City Community Schools $173,513 761 228
Covenant House Academy Grand Rapids $172,794 301 574
Iron Mountain Public Schools $172,595 829 208
Sandusky Community School District $172,492 1,030 167
Corunna Public Schools $172,199 1,759 98
Lakeview Public Schools (Macomb) $172,068 4,348 40
Alcona Community Schools $170,024 692 246
Cornerstone Jefferson-Douglass Academy $169,968 699 243
Bellevue Community Schools $169,882 591 287
Huron School District $169,472 2,532 67
South Lyon Community Schools $169,420 8,736 19
Saginaw Preparatory Academy $169,049 268 631
Forest Hills Public Schools $168,110 9,670 17
Trillium Academy $167,723 613 274
Mio-AuSable Schools $167,399 512 327
Huron Academy $167,356 628 266
ACE Academy (SDA) $166,917 156 1,070
Vicksburg Community Schools $166,873 2,643 63
Kent City Community Schools $166,840 1,289 129
Commonwealth Community Development Academy $165,980 186 892
Hudson Area Schools $165,944 1,177 141
Capac Community Schools $165,600 826 200
Delton Kellogg Schools $165,587 1,176 141
Otsego Public Schools $164,258 2,336 70
Hope Academy of West Michigan $163,699 376 435
Mid-Michigan Leadership Academy $162,588 331 491
Columbia School District $162,541 1,514 107
East Shore Leadership Academy $162,329 181 897
Bullock Creek School District $161,965 1,874 86
Vandercook Lake Public Schools $161,724 843 192
Coopersville Area Public School District $161,679 2,643 61
Ithaca Public Schools $161,614 1,076 150
New Buffalo Area Schools $161,587 579 279
St. Joseph Public Schools $161,030 3,017 53
Edwardsburg Public Schools $160,381 2,748 58
Grand River Academy $160,310 769 208
Coleman Community Schools $159,728 671 238
Lake Orion Community Schools $158,066 7,219 22
Ishpeming Public School District No. 1 $158,029 712 222
Jefferson Schools (Monroe) $157,784 1,530 103
Decatur Public Schools $157,447 753 209
Leslie Public Schools $157,324 1,210 130
Bentley Community School District $157,222 832 189
Union City Community Schools $156,815 1,016 154
Thornapple Kellogg School District $156,485 3,207 49
Perry Public Schools $156,013 1,055 148
Okemos Public Schools $154,537 4,603 34
Mason County Eastern Schools $153,326 405 379
Madison Academy $151,991 450 338
Eaton Academy $150,699 367 411
Zeeland Public Schools $150,345 6,283 24
Paragon Charter Academy $150,032 638 235
Greater Heights Academy $149,474 260 575
Rutherford Winans Academy $148,624 232 641
Excel Charter Academy $148,314 778 191
New Haven Community Schools $148,044 1,283 115
Gobles Public School District $146,420 771 190
Taylor Preparatory High School $146,256 435 336
Global Heights Academy $146,056 254 575
South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy $144,522 752 192
Charlevoix Public Schools $144,403 846 171
Genesee STEM Academy $144,371 337 428
Birch Run Area Schools $142,777 1,879 76
Vanguard Charter Academy $142,766 781 183
Deckerville Community School District $142,133 584 243
Escuela Avancemos $141,712 312 454
Williamston Community Schools $141,246 1,890 75
Da Vinci Institute $139,372 507 275
Johannesburg-Lewiston Area Schools $138,674 706 196
Marysville Public Schools $138,304 2,810 49
Meridian Public Schools $137,608 1,343 102
Breckenridge Community Schools $137,176 624 220
Lawrence Public Schools $136,732 526 260
Onsted Community Schools $136,673 1,304 105
North Huron School District $136,438 355 384
Triumph Academy $136,176 758 180
Pellston Public Schools $134,958 476 284
River Valley School District $134,581 561 240
Bay City Academy $134,533 386 349
Jonesville Community Schools $134,181 1,453 92
Detroit Public Safety Academy $133,471 229 583
David Ellis Academy $133,381 272 490
Woodland Park Academy $133,309 332 402
Hudsonville Public School District $133,086 6,958 19
Kingsley Area Schools $131,759 1,538 86
Elk Rapids Schools $131,607 1,261 104
Genesee School District $131,049 674 194
Birmingham Public Schools $130,990 7,991 16
Colon Community School District $130,755 572 229
Allendale Public Schools $130,513 2,656 49
Elkton-Pigeon-Bay Port Laker Schools $129,970 924 141
Onaway Area Community School District $129,949 569 228
Springport Public Schools $128,905 1,016 127
Boyne City Public Schools $128,800 1,344 96
Royal Oak Schools $128,680 5,060 25
Weston Preparatory Academy $128,618 286 450
Essexville-Hampton Public Schools $127,032 1,695 75
Vanderbilt Charter Academy $126,952 474 268
Breitung Township School District $126,616 1,910 66
Joseph K. Lumsden Bahweting Anishnabe Academy $126,601 623 203
Grand River Preparatory High School $126,511 604 209
East Arbor Charter Academy $126,073 595 212
Great Lakes Academy $125,895 154 818
Hillman Community Schools $122,667 430 285
Gladstone Area Schools $122,071 1,548 79
Pinckney Community Schools $121,993 2,431 50
St. Charles Community Schools $121,507 888 137
Fairview Area School District $121,489 301 404
Rogers City Area Schools $120,621 517 233
Crossroads Charter Academy $120,363 510 236
Eagle Crest Charter Academy $120,363 729 165
Homer Community School District $120,235 988 122
Portland Public Schools $119,703 2,079 58
New Branches Charter Academy $119,484 372 321
American Montessori Academy $119,195 465 256
McBain Rural Agricultural Schools $118,735 1,065 111
Eagles Nest Academy $117,778 184 640
Olivet Community Schools $117,606 1,376 85
Milan Area Schools $117,527 2,164 54
Kingston Community School District $117,497 584 201
Detroit Achievement Academy $116,866 398 294
LAnse Area Schools $116,715 592 197
Tekonsha Community Schools $115,822 228 508
Henry Ford Academy $114,718 513 224
Bridgman Public Schools $114,617 898 128
Carsonville-Port Sanilac School District $113,164 352 321
Hamilton Community Schools $111,906 2,761 41
Bloomfield Hills Schools $111,145 5,500 20
Atlanta Community Schools $110,779 252 440
Merrill Community Schools $110,579 555 199
New Paradigm College Prep $110,312 221 499
Morenci Area Schools $110,204 627 176
Whitmore Lake Public School District $109,768 684 160
Marcellus Community Schools $109,673 696 158
Byron Center Public Schools $109,280 4,216 26
Walker Charter Academy $108,940 747 146
Addison Community Schools $108,597 806 135
Mildred C. Wells Preparatory Academy $108,041 230 470
Athens Area Schools $107,798 528 204
Napoleon Community Schools $107,503 1,326 81
Lawton Community School District $106,997 972 110
Waldron Area Schools $106,879 218 490
Vestaburg Community Schools $106,655 806 132
Freeland Community School District $106,179 1,996 53
Lake Linden-Hubbell School District $105,098 393 267
Flint Cultural Center Academy $104,310 374 279
Sarah J. Webber Media Arts Academy $104,308 237 440
Hancock Public Schools $103,838 693 150
Novi Community School District $103,290 6,633 16
Reese Public Schools $102,688 790 130
Michigan Online School $102,396 566 181
Grand Traverse Academy $102,269 874 117
Dundee Community Schools $100,645 1,716 59
Muskegon Covenant Academy $100,497 181 555
Hartland Consolidated Schools $99,732 5,468 18
Mason Consolidated Schools (Monroe) $99,524 1,049 95
Keystone Academy $99,389 700 142
AGBU Alex-Marie Manoogian School $98,399 394 250
Macomb Montessori Academy $98,220 231 425
Blissfield Community Schools $98,213 1,208 81
Merritt Academy $97,081 550 177
Au Gres-Sims School District $97,058 392 248
Northville Public Schools $96,962 7,358 13
Brighton Area Schools $96,566 5,973 16
Lake Fenton Community Schools $95,508 2,106 45
Spring Lake Public Schools $95,450 2,465 39
WAY Academy - Flint $95,135 93 1,023
Wellspring Preparatory High School $94,884 398 238
Harbor Beach Community Schools $93,491 485 193
North Central Area Schools $93,207 350 266
Fulton Schools $92,768 649 143
Pembroke Academy $92,667 280 331
Pathways Academy $92,109 155 594
Vanderbilt Area Schools $91,727 81 1,132
Saranac Community Schools $91,718 904 101
Unionville-Sebewaing Area S.D. $91,662 711 129
Litchfield Community Schools $90,848 288 315
Norway-Vulcan Area Schools $90,647 648 140
Wolverine Community School District $90,485 267 339
Goodrich Area Schools $90,425 2,029 45
Suttons Bay Public Schools $89,805 589 152
St. Ignace Area Schools $88,638 508 174
Lighthouse Connections Academy $87,915 537 164
Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools $87,629 472 186
Summit Academy $87,548 246 356
Summerfield Schools $87,111 589 148
Ravenna Public Schools $86,849 1,025 85
Renaissance Public School Academy $86,514 436 198
Global Tech Academy $86,423 179 483
Baraga Area Schools $85,986 332 259
International Academy of Saginaw $84,800 149 569
Hemlock Public School District $84,412 1,179 72
Swan Valley School District $84,328 1,827 46
Centreville Public Schools $83,762 839 100
Walkerville Public Schools $83,279 266 313
Arbor Academy $82,164 205 401
Byron Area Schools $81,864 816 100
Arts Academy in the Woods $80,107 322 249
Potterville Public Schools $79,590 798 100
WAY Michigan $79,586 195 408
Alanson Public Schools $79,289 221 359
Munising Public Schools $78,058 626 125
Multicultural Academy $77,813 147 529
Concord Community Schools $77,486 657 118
Hanover-Horton School District $77,268 1,138 68
NICE Community School District $77,183 1,144 67
Hopkins Public Schools $76,871 1,634 47
Saline Area Schools $76,777 5,198 15
Brimley Area Schools $76,413 537 142
Bessemer Area School District $76,052 405 188
The Woodley Leadership Academy $76,035 167 455
Houghton-Portage Township School District $75,945 1,429 53
Akron-Fairgrove Schools $74,748 320 234
Kalamazoo Covenant Academy $74,654 184 406
Nah Tah Wahsh Public School Academy $74,296 198 375
Martin Public Schools $74,069 584 127
Ubly Community Schools $74,038 620 119
North Adams-Jerome Public Schools $74,014 294 252
Forest Park School District $73,727 467 158
Stephenson Area Public Schools $73,225 468 156
Almont Community Schools $73,151 1,463 50
Bark River-Harris School District $72,838 716 102
Burr Oak Community School District $71,827 278 258
Vista Meadows Academy $71,453 102 701
Negaunee Public Schools $71,143 1,518 47
Webberville Community Schools $71,054 502 142
Ontonagon Area School District $70,855 270 262
Wakefield-Marenisco School District $70,708 279 253
Engadine Consolidated Schools $70,365 345 204
Cross Creek Charter Academy $70,088 784 89
Sand Creek Community Schools $69,802 832 84
South Canton Scholars Charter Academy $69,692 785 89
Clinton Community Schools $69,477 1,240 56
Dansville Schools $69,477 746 93
West MI Academy of Arts and Academics $69,406 418 166
Nottawa Community School $68,421 136 503
Mendon Community School District $68,238 515 133
Grosse Ile Township Schools $68,197 1,781 38
Pittsford Area Schools $67,238 409 164
Black River Public School $66,473 934 71
Ewen-Trout Creek Consolidated School District $66,401 183 363
Capstone Academy Charter School (SDA) $66,332 172 386
Buckley Community Schools $65,530 437 150
North Star Academy $65,452 253 259
Bath Community Schools $64,610 1,123 58
Memphis Community Schools $64,513 815 79
State Street Academy $64,231 146 440
Peck Community School District $64,089 323 198
Clara B. Ford Academy (SDA) $63,069 127 497
Charyl Stockwell Academy $62,959 1,132 56
Rapid River Public Schools $62,098 303 205
Marshall Academy $61,500 243 253
North Dickinson County Schools $61,292 255 240
Saginaw Learn to Earn Academy $61,205 102 600
Posen Consolidated School District No. 9 $61,136 207 295
Lakeside Charter School $60,730 122 498
Lakeside Charter Academy - Albion $60,446 149 406
Bellaire Public Schools $60,225 340 177
Life Skills Center of Pontiac $59,763 96 623
St. Clair County Intervention Academy $58,769 79 744
West Michigan Aviation Academy $58,324 606 96
Momentum Academy $58,245 220 265
Washtenaw Technical Middle College $57,811 772 75
Clawson Public Schools $57,539 1,446 40
Harbor Springs School District $57,019 779 73
Arbor Preparatory High School $56,667 285 199
Climax-Scotts Community Schools $56,659 496 114
Bay-Arenac Community High School $56,277 164 343
Schoolcraft Community Schools $55,683 1,068 52
Inkster Preparatory Academy $55,547 186 299
Morrice Area Schools $55,192 497 111
Grass Lake Community Schools $55,192 1,328 42
Bear Lake Schools $55,112 286 193
Mt. Clemens Montessori Academy $54,471 298 183
Creative Technologies Academy $53,837 313 172
Manchester Community Schools $53,826 867 62
Ida Public School District $53,818 1,439 37
Detroit Collegiate High School $53,394 105 509
Windover High School $53,326 145 368
Alternative Educational Academy of Iosco County $53,326 154 346
Ashley Community Schools $53,224 250 213
Superior Central School District $52,921 331 160
DeWitt Public Schools $52,686 3,196 16
Battle Creek Montessori Academy $52,038 170 306
South Arbor Charter Academy $51,873 790 66
Flat River Academy $51,686 107 483
Les Cheneaux Community Schools $51,601 206 250
Pentwater Public School District $51,447 266 193
Onekama Consolidated Schools $51,277 368 139
Four Corners Montessori Academy $51,081 457 112
Battle Creek Area Learning Center $51,034 171 298
East Grand Rapids Public Schools $50,842 2,887 18
Saugatuck Public Schools $50,647 807 63
Central Lake Public Schools $50,595 277 183
Chatfield School $50,455 486 104
Mar Lee School District $50,306 329 153
LifeTech Academy $50,186 257 195
Laingsburg Community Schools $47,802 1,166 41
Michigan International Prep School $47,358 732 65
Chelsea School District $46,784 2,438 19
Noor International Academy $46,290 169 274
Forest Academy $46,124 157 294
WSC Academy $46,000 70 657
Muskegon Montessori Academy for Environmental Change $45,080 166 272
New Lothrop Area Public Schools $44,968 923 49
Big Bay De Noc School District $44,475 158 281
Holly Academy $44,455 620 72
Virtual Learning Academy of St. Clair County $44,260 135 328
Alternative Educational Academy of Ogemaw County $44,195 126 351
Chandler Woods Charter Academy $43,954 785 56
Britton Deerfield Schools $43,927 487 90
Grand Rapids Child Discovery Center $43,488 279 156
Cole Academy $43,400 326 133
Beal City Public Schools $42,854 681 63
Gateway To Success Academy $42,696 119 359
Dryden Community Schools $42,690 414 103
Mackinaw City Public Schools $41,965 141 298
Canton Charter Academy $41,180 723 57
Pewamo-Westphalia Community Schools $40,907 647 63
NexTech High School $40,148 120 335
Dollar Bay-Tamarack City Area K-12 School $39,340 336 117
Jackson Preparatory & Early College $38,805 358 108
Caseville Public Schools $38,757 262 148
Ojibwe Charter School $38,310 114 336
The James and Grace Lee Boggs School $38,217 138 277
NexTech High School of Lansing $37,166 114 326
Alba Public Schools $37,015 110 337
North Muskegon Public Schools $37,011 1,035 36
FlexTech High School $36,247 252 144
Armada Area Schools $36,126 1,767 20
Canton Preparatory High School $36,034 393 92
Walden Green Montessori $36,022 241 149
Achieve Charter Academy $35,637 791 45
Pickford Public Schools $35,542 447 80
Glen Lake Community Schools $34,526 668 52
Owendale-Gagetown Area School District $33,550 153 219
Adams Township School District $33,352 487 68
Boyne Falls Public School District $33,026 205 161
Relevant Academy of Eaton County $32,951 52 634
Ellsworth Community School $32,950 244 135
Concord Academy - Petoskey $32,946 178 185
Frankenmuth School District $32,821 1,366 24
Academic and Career Education Academy $32,722 94 348
Innocademy Allegan Campus $32,269 105 307
Three Lakes Academy $32,067 105 305
Byron Center Charter School $31,820 236 135
Blended Learning Academies Credit Recovery High School $31,510 132 239
Carney-Nadeau Public Schools $29,850 299 100
Ionia Township S/D #2 $29,828 8 3,729
Innocademy $29,698 324 92
Leland Public School District $29,219 518 56
Whiteford Agricultural School District of the Counties of Lenawee and Monroe $28,570 756 38
Waterford Montessori Academy $28,510 371 77
Casman Alternative Academy $27,637 66 419
Hillsdale Preparatory School $27,236 95 287
Chassell Township School District $27,143 248 109
Outlook Academy $26,719 49 545
Will Carleton Charter School Academy $23,758 284 84
Watersmeet Township School District $23,538 143 165
Stanton Township Public Schools $23,510 177 133
ICademy Global $23,363 216 108
Uplift Michigan Academy $22,554 155 146
Republic-Michigamme Schools $22,471 98 229
DeTour Arts and Technology Academy $21,132 79 267
Oakland Academy $21,080 153 138
DeTour Area Schools $20,885 102 205
Fowler Public Schools $19,809 466 43
Island City Academy $19,800 203 98
New Bedford Academy $19,767 105 188
Mid Peninsula School District $19,637 184 107
AuTrain-Onota Public Schools $19,587 32 612
Concord Academy - Boyne $18,648 154 121
FlexTech High School - Novi $17,570 230 76
Leelanau Montessori Public School Academy $17,375 62 280
Ann Arbor Learning Community $17,367 320 54
Moran Township School District $17,265 88 196
Evergreen Academy $16,378 19 862
Branch Line School $16,215 144 113
Big Jackson School District $16,111 19 848
Charlevoix Montessori Academy for the Arts $15,561 48 324
The Greenspire School $15,001 132 114
Northport Public School District $14,836 136 109
Plymouth Scholars Charter Academy $14,781 774 19
Francis Street Primary School $14,731 52 283
Kensington Woods Schools $13,419 128 105
Hagar Township S/D #6 $13,405 75 179
Faxon Language Immersion Academy $12,957 71 182
Berlin Township S/D #3 $12,806 9 1,423
Easton Township S/D #6 $12,701 25 508
White Pine Academy $12,306 66 186
Excelsior Township S/D #1 $11,975 50 240
Woodland School $11,879 216 55
Blue Water Middle College $11,765 377 31
Saginaw Covenant Academy $11,729 111 106
Light of the World Academy $10,691 229 47
Ivywood Classical Academy $10,353 131 79
Bangor Township S/D #8 $8,952 24 373
Powell Township Schools $7,317 33 222
Honey Creek Community School $4,598 227 20
Kingsbury Country Day School $4,414 320 14
Youth Advancement Academy $4,387 20 219
Sodus Township S/D #5 $2,328 81 29
Presque Isle Academy $1,646 27 61
Beaver Island Community School $1,398 49 29
Burt Township School District $1,339 31 43
Mackinac Island Public Schools $978 67 15
Whitefish Township Schools $789 52 15
Colfax Township S/D #1F $394 22 18
Church School District $325 16 20
Sigel Township S/D #4F $275 26 11
Verona Township S/D #1F $275 20 14
Wells Township School District $229 13 18
Source: Michigan Department of Education and Center for Educational Performance and Information

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