The Other 60 Percent

Taking on a win-at-all-costs society in the classroom

Teacher David Guy was about to set two-dozen first-graders loose in the Simla School gym to play “capture the cones,” when he asked, “How do you treat people when you win?”

Simla Elementary students play "capture the cones" in p.e. class.
Simla Elementary students play “capture the cones” in p.e. class.

In unison, a chorus of high-pitched voices replied, “Nice!”

“It’s not just nice,” said Guy patiently. “It’s about treating them fairly, right? It’s about treating them respectfully. We always have to do that.”

The lesson took only five seconds, but it hit on one of the essential messages of TrueSport, a curriculum created by the United States Anti-Doping Agency in Colorado Springs. It’s that message, among others, that appealed to Guy and several other teachers from the Big Sandy school district when they attended an informational summit on the program last February.

It also appealed to the Big Sandy School Board, which adopted the curriculum at a meeting that same night, after technology teacher Sue Snyder rushed back from the summit to present on the topic.

“It passed with flying colors,” she said. “We were using it the next day with our junior high kids.”

While the overnight adoption of TrueSport is perhaps unique to tiny districts like the 360-student Big Sandy, the creators of the curriculum, are eager to see its widespread use, not just in Colorado but across the country.

“Broadly, we think of it as a movement,” said Erin Hannan, communications and outreach director for the United States Anti-Doping Agency, or USADA.

What is it?

At its most basic, TrueSport is an effort to promote health and ethics among youth.

“It uses sport as the vehicle to deliver that,” said Hannan.

Eight core principles, such as “Be Courageous” and “Fair Play or No Way” anchor the program, which includes a K-12 curriculum that is aligned with Colorado’s state physical education and health standards, a pre-K activity book,  an online training for coaches, a parent handbook, and code of conduct forms that can be printed out and signed by players, coaches and parents. The program also enlists well-known athletes like Olympians Peter Vanderkaay and DeeDee Trotter to visit participating schools as “TrueSport Ambassadors.”

A sign in the gym at Simla School.
A sign in the gym at Simla School.

The goal, Hannan said, is to shift the prevailing winning-is-everything attitude to one where healthy choices and integrity govern behavior on and off the sports field. Given USADA’s role as the country’s enforcer of anti-doping rules among Olympic and other high-profile athletes, the push to imprint the sports heroes of the future with a strong moral compass makes sense.

But, in a hyper-competitive world where three-year-olds can play team sports and some parents redshirt their five-year-olds in the hopes it will give them an athletic advantage in high school, no one thinks it’s going to be easy.

“We recognize we’re absolutely going against the tide,” said Hannan.

Still, among the teachers and coaches that use TrueSport materials, enthusiasm runs high. In addition to the emphasis on character education, they like that it’s got a contemporary feel with real-world examples, often taken straight from the headlines of the past few years.

Perhaps best of all, it’s free.

“To be honest, that’s what we need. We don’t have a big budget,” said Caroline Weinberg, a health teacher at the 1,400-student Mesa Middle School in Douglas County. “It’s nice to get something new and fresh.”

Already this year, she’s used her classroom set of TrueSport workbooks to talk about decision-making and role models, and she plans to use it for upcoming units on nutrition and performance-enhancing drugs. The alternative, she said is an ancient textbook that few teachers use.

Weinberg said she also appreciates that TrueSport talks about the dangers of super-caffeinated energy drinks.

“Obviously, that’s not in our textbook,” she said. “I see kids all the time with their Monster drinks.”

While TrueSport curriculum is often covered in health or physical education classes, and perhaps less formally in after-school sports, it has found its way into other kinds of classes, including biology and language arts.

Snyder, who also coaches girls volleyball at Simla, uses the program in her high school computer applications class. Students use TrueSport content to practice with blogging platforms and create digital presentations. On a recent morning, she led a discussion from chapter three of the TrueSport workbook on maximizing mental and physical performance in a healthy way.

Teacher Sue Snyder talks about mental toughness with high school students in her computer applications class.
Teacher Sue Snyder talks about mental toughness with high school students in her computer applications class.

“There’s a lot that you can do to be mentally tough,” she said to the 10 students sitting around the computer lab. “Set specific measurable goals…So, measurable goals would be what?”

“Gain ten pounds during the season,” said one boy.

“Win state,” said another.

“Catch the ball,” said a third.

For most of the students in the class, which was mostly boys and included several student athletes, the discussion seemed to touch on both their interests and personal experience. Nevertheless, TrueSport leaders stress that students don’t have to be athletes to benefit from the program’s focus on healthy choices and lifestyles.

Simla High School senior Cheryl Clonts, doesn’t play sports, but said she enjoys the TrueSport discussions during computer applications class.

”I think they can apply to more than just sports, but real life as well.”

Brett Smith, a senior on the girls volleyball team, doesn’t take any classes that cover TrueSport this year but said the presence of the program pushes the school’s athletes, coaches and even spectators to have higher standards.

“There’s just sportsmanship, even in our crowd, where we’re not yelling at the refs or we’re not arguing a lot….We don’t get in the face of refs and we don’t try to change their opinion as much as other schools.”

“TrueSport’s helped with that,” she said. “It’s kind of like a motto for us.”

Small but growing

While TrueSport officials have ambitious plans for the program, only about 10 Colorado schools currently use the curriculum. Nationally, the numbers are harder to come by. USADA has received requests from schools in 47 states, but does not track whether the curriculum is actually implemented. A few districts in Texas, as well as others around the country have implemented the curriculum in a robust way, according to TrueSport officials.

Elementary students at Simla School earn stars on these charts whenever they are selected as TrueSport of the day. When they get four stars, they receive a $1 coupon for the school store.
Elementary students at Simla School earn stars on these charts whenever they are selected as TrueSport of the day. When they get four stars, they receive a $1 coupon for the school store.

One district that doesn’t use TrueSport is Colorado Springs  11, the largest district in the vicinity of USADA offices. District Athletic Director David Eichman said the district uses a newly revamped physical education curriculum that has been written by district staff over the last couple years to align with state’s physical education standards. In addition, the district uses the “SPARK” physical education curriculum to augment the district’s program. Eichman said teachers are welcome to use TrueSport materials, but he doesn’t know of a single one who has.

One factor contributing to TrueSport’s relatively small footprint may be its youth.  Although USADA  began offering a similar curriculum targeting a narrower age range called “100 percent Me” in 2006,  the full K-12 program and TrueSport brand didn’t come out until early 2012.

“My perception is they’re kind of feeling their way…There hasn’t been a big hard launch,” said Judy Sandlin, an associate professor in the college of education and human development at Texas A&M University. She helped create parts of the TrueSport curriculum and now serves as one of TrueSport’s “educational ambassadors.” Some day, Sandlin hopes TrueSport will become as well known as Race for the Cure.

In the case of Weinberg, who works in the 65,000-student Douglas County district, she made a personal decision to use TrueSport in her classes because she heard about it through a casual friend who works for USADA.

“I wouldn’t have ever known about it unless I was friends with this girl on Facebook,” said Weinberg, who hopes to introduce the curriculum to other health and p.e. teachers at her school as well as to the district’s health education coordinator.

In addition to being a young program, TrueSport also faces a market crowded with physical education and health curriculums.

Eichman said while he thinks TrueSport is “all really good stuff,” he added, “You can go on the Internet and get tons of resources.”

A good illustration of this may be the California Healthy Kids Resource Center Library, an extensive online compilation of health-oriented curricula and programs. While TrueSport earned a listing, it is among a whopping 179 programs listed in the “nutrition” category and among 124 listed in the “alcohol and other drugs” category. It is not among the 32 “research-validated” listings in the nearly 800-item library.

Rewarding sportsmanship

Back in Dave Guy’s p.e. class, the first-graders, thirsty and flushed, finished up their game and lined up in the hall. Before Guy, who also teaches high school science and coaches boys basketball, sent the kids back to their classrooms, he did something that has become an after-class ritual this year: He picked the TrueSport of the day.

Guy explained that during “capture the cones,” he thought he saw a student tag opponents a couple times, but more than once, the tagger admitted that he’d missed.

“For that honesty and playing the game the right way and being respectful, Trevyn is the True Sport of the day,” said Guy.

With that, there was a sing-song chorus of “Trevyn” and a jumble of kids crowded around a little boy in an orange hoodie to deliver a spontaneous group hug.

Frequently asked

There are lots of ways schools teach English learners. Here’s how it works.

PHOTO: Andy Cross/The Denver Post
Lindsey Erisman works with 6-year-old students in an English Language Acquisition class at Denver's Cole Arts & Science Academy.

School district officials in Westminster this year signed an agreement with federal officials to change how they educate students who are learning English as a second language.

Similar agreements have also shaped how districts in Denver, Aurora, Adams 14, and Adams 12 educate their English language learner students. But many people, including parents and district insiders, may still have questions about the various complicated programs and requirements.

Although many of the language-education agreements are years old, most of the issues haven’t been resolved. In Adams 14, for instance, parents and advocates have protested a district decision to stop biliteracy programming, and have questioned the district’s compliance with its agreement to better serve English learners. District officials have pointed out that their obligation is teaching students English, not making them bilingual.

Now at least one charter school, KIPP, is looking to fill in that programming gap. Many other states have had a number of biliteracy and other bilingual programs at various schools for years, but Colorado has only more recently started to follow those trends.

So what’s the difference between the various language programs and services? And what is required by law and what isn’t? The following questions and answers might help clarify some of those questions as you follow the news around these issues.

Which students are designated as English language learners? Do parents get to decide, or do schools decide?

Federal guidance requires school districts have some way to identify English learners. Most commonly, districts survey all parents at school registration about their home language and the student’s first language. If that survey finds there might be an influence of another language at home, the student must be assessed to determine fluency in English. While the district has to identify all students who aren’t fluent in English as language learners, parents in Colorado can choose to waive the federally required services for their children. If so, the district doesn’t have to provide special services, but would still be required to monitor that the student is making progress toward acquiring English.

What educational rights do English language learners have?

English language learners have specific rights under the Lau v. Nichols Supreme Court case from 1974 and the subsequent Castañeda standards released in 1981. State laws also outline some requirements for school districts. Specifically, school districts must provide programs for all identified language learners to give them the opportunity to learn English and to access a comprehensive curriculum. The government does not state what that program should be, but provides some standards requiring that any program is theoretically sound and has a research base to support it. The program has to have qualified teachers, and a way to demonstrate that students are making progress in learning English and their academic content. While the civil rights officials consider many details to verify compliance, simply put, school districts have the legal obligation to identify students, serve them in a sound program, and monitor their progress.

What is the difference between bilingual education and “ELL services?”

Bilingual education (which is the program that has the most support for efficacy from the research community) offers students opportunities to learn in their native language while they are learning English. Bilingual programs can vary from short-term, or early-exit programs, to more longer-term developmental programs.

English language learner services do not need to provide opportunities for students to learn in the native language. Most commonly these services only offer English language development classes (generally 45 minutes per day). All other content instruction is offered only in English. ELL services are not bilingual.

What is English language development?

English language development must be a part of any program or model a district or school adopts. It is the class time when students are taught the English language. The government wants to see that English learners are given a dedicated time to learn English, when they are not competing with native English speakers. That means, often, English language development is offered as a time when students are pulled out of class to practice English, or as a special elective period students must take without their English-speaking peers.

The structure of this time period, who has access to it, or who teaches it, are areas commonly cited as problems by the federal Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights.

Do students who are identified as English language learners retain that designation forever? What does it mean to be an “exited ELL?”

They’re not supposed to. Students who are English learners should be tested at least once a year to determine their English proficiency. When a student reaches a high enough level, school staff must determine if the student is now fluent in English. If so, the student becomes an “exited ELL.” The law requires districts to monitor for two years students who have exited and are no longer receiving services. There are, however, students who do not reach English fluency before graduating or leaving school.

What is the difference between being bilingual and being biliterate?

Bilingual generally refers to oral language in that bilingual people can understand and speak two languages but may not be able to read and write in those languages. Biliterate refers to being able to understand, speak, read, and write in two languages. Many people are bilingual but not biliterate. Biliteracy is considered to be a higher form of bilingualism.

What is the difference between dual language and biliteracy models?

Dual language and biliteracy models share many common components. Both models usually have biliteracy as their end goal for students. Dual language models may be “one-way” or “two-way.” One-way programs generally serve students who are designated as English language learners (also sometimes called emerging bilinguals). Two-way dual language programs include students who are native English speakers. The only major difference is that biliteracy models focus on using two languages in the language arts or literacy classes (reading and writing in two languages) whereas dual language focuses on using two languages across the entire school day’s curriculum.

What is an immersion model?

Immersion models traditionally are thought of as referring to programs primarily intended for students from the dominant language population to learn a second language. This is different from programs meant to teach English.

While native English students can choose whether or not to learn a second language, students who are English language learners do not have a choice in learning English.

What is sheltered instruction?

This type of instruction takes place in non-dual language schools, during regular content classes (such as math or science), and it’s one way schools try to make the content understandable to students who aren’t yet fluent in English.

This is especially common in schools where English learners speak a variety of languages. Crawford Elementary in Aurora, for instance, has had up to 35 different languages represented among its approximately 560 students. If there aren’t enough students who speak a common first language and also a teacher who speaks the same language as those students, then schools must teach through English, while making the English as accessible as possible.

In practice, this means an English-speaking teacher would use sheltered instruction techniques to help all children understand the lessons such as, physical props, a focus on building vocabulary, and sentence stems.

Denver designates schools as TNLI schools. What does that mean?

Denver created the TNLI label in 1999 to set the district apart from other bilingual program models. TNLI stands for Transitional Native Language Instruction. The Denver TNLI program is a transitional bilingual education program model with a label created just for Denver. It’s a model where instruction in Spanish is used to help students learn while they’re acquiring English, but still has a goal of making students fluent in English as soon as possible, at which point students move into mainstream English classrooms.

Is one of these models best suited for English learners?

Among researchers, it is commonly accepted that dual language or biliteracy models are the most effective to put English learners on par with their native speaking peers, in the long run.

Why do teachers have to be trained specifically to teach this population of students? What are teachers learning?

Educators and researchers say that teachers need to learn the differences and similarities between learning in one language and learning bilingually. Teachers need to learn about literacy methodology and how teaching literacy in Spanish (for example) is the same and different as teaching literacy in English. They have to learn how to teach English language development to students who are beginning to learn English (it is different than just teaching in English). These trainings also help teachers learn about cultural similarities and differences and about sources of culture conflict. Teachers need to be able to teach children English; how to use English to learn; and how the English language works. In bilingual settings teachers need to learn those three things for two languages. In short, the training needed to be a bilingual teacher is quite different. Colorado will soon require some of this training for all teachers.

What are the challenges districts have in offering these different programs? How do schools decide which type of model to offer?

The demographics of a district’s student population, and district politics play a large part in helping a district decide what model or program to use. Resources can also be a factor in deciding how to structure services or what programs to offer. In Adams 14, when the district leadership decided to pause the roll out of a biliteracy program, the district cited a lack of qualified bilingual teachers, among other things.

In Westminster, the school district’s unique competency-based approach, which removes grade levels and seeks to personalize instruction, was cited as a reason why the district had structured its English language development the way it had before the investigation by the Office for Civil Rights sought to change it.

Does Colorado provide guidance or oversight for how districts are doing this work?

The Colorado Department of Education offers some guidance for districts, but oversight of the districts’ compliance with what is required is limited. In practice, when parents suspect their children aren’t educated well, they have filed complaints with the federal government. In Denver, the complaints went through the Department of Justice. Investigations of most other metro-area districts have been conducted by the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights.

task force

Jeffco takes collaborative approach as it considers later school start times

File photo of Wheat Ridge High School students. (Photo by Nic Garcia/Chalkbeat)

The Jeffco school district is weighing pushing back start times at its middle and high schools, and the community task force set up to offer recommendations is asking for public input.

Nearby school districts, such as those in Cherry Creek and Greeley, have rolled out later start times, and Jeffco — the second largest school district in Colorado — in December announced its decision to study the issue.

Thompson and Brighton’s 27J school districts are pushing back start times at their secondary schools this fall.

The 50-person Jeffco task force has until January to present their recommendations to the district.

Supporters of the idea to start the school day later cite research showing that teenagers benefit from sleeping in and often do better in school as a result.

Jeffco is considering changing start times after parents and community members began pressing superintendent Jason Glass to look at the issue. Middle and high schools in the Jeffco district currently start at around 7:30 a.m.

The task force is inviting community members to offer their feedback this summer on the group’s website, its Facebook page, or the district’s form, and to come to its meetings in the fall.

Katie Winner, a Jeffco parent of two and one of three chairs of the start times task force, said she’s excited about how collaborative the work is this year.

“It’s a little shocking,” Winner said. “It’s really hard to convey to people that Jeffco schools wants your feedback. But I can say [definitively], I don’t believe this is a waste of time.”

The task force is currently split into three committees focusing on reviewing research on school start times, considering outcomes in other districts that have changed start times, and gathering community input. The group as a whole will also consider how schedule changes could affect transportation, sports and other after school activities, student employment, and district budgets.

Members of the task force are not appointed by the district, as has been typical in district decision-making in years past. Instead, as a way to try to generate the most community engagement, everyone who expressed interest was accepted into the group. Meetings are open to the public, and people can still join the task force.

“These groups are short-term work groups, not school board advisory committees. They are targeting some current issues that our families are interested in,” said Diana Wilson, the district’s chief communications officer. “Since the topics likely have a broad range of perspectives, gathering people that (hopefully) represent those perspectives to look at options seems like a good way to find some solutions or ideas for positive/constructive changes.”

How such a large group will reach a consensus remains to be seen. Winner knows the prospect could appear daunting, but “it’s actually a challenge to the group to say: be inclusive.”

For now the group is seeking recommendations that won’t require the district to spend more money. But Winner said the group will keep a close eye on potential tax measures that could give the district new funds after November. If some measure were to pass, it could give the group more flexibility in its recommendations.