books vs. food

Skipping meals to afford books: College students’ financial woes go beyond tuition payments, survey shows

PHOTO: Alex Zimmerman
Mayor Bill de Blasio with KIPP co-founder David Levin at KIPP Infinity Middle School.

As a student at Hunter College in Manhattan, Ernest Gould worked multiple jobs, but still had trouble paying for basic living expenses like books, food and transportation.

So he would skip “a lot of meals,” mostly breakfast, to help pay for things like MetroCards and school supplies. Even then, he didn’t have enough money to buy a laptop or a phone, which meant he did all of his homework in the library — often staying until late at night to finish.

“It’s just another level of anxiety that you have to deal with,” he said.

Gould is one of many college students struggling to pay for expenses beyond the school’s tuition, according to a survey of almost 3,000 former KIPP students released last week.

KIPP, a charter network with schools in New York, New Jersey and other cities, sends an average of 81 percent of its graduates to college. But, as the survey reveals, many struggle financially once they get there.

More than 40 percent of surveyed students — the majority of whom are low-income — reported missing meals so they could pay for books or other school expenses. About one-quarter of students said they are either fully or partially supporting their families while in college.

KIPP’s survey is a reminder that the cost of college extends well beyond tuition for many students. That concept is not new, but it has resurfaced in the debate over Governor Andrew Cuomo’s proposal to provide free college tuition at state colleges for all families earning less than $125,000 per year.

Cuomo’s plan was hailed as a much-needed boost for middle-class families. But it has also drawn criticism for providing little to no assistance for low-income students who are already receiving state and federal grants, but could benefit from help with other costs, such as books, food and rent.

KIPP’s co-founder David Levin is a proponent of Cuomo’s tuition plan, which he says will ease the cost burden on some former KIPP students who do not receive full financial aid at college. He also hopes it will crack open a larger conversation about the myriad financial challenges low-income college students face.

“Tuition is the gatekeeper for kids overall, so if there are increased funds that cover college tuition … there will be the ability to focus on these broader issues,” Levin said.

The survey’s findings highlight the unmet need. Nearly 60 percent of KIPP alumni reported worrying about running out of food during college. In addition, only about 30 percent said they had found jobs or internships aligned to their career aspirations.

For many, finding a job — any job — is essential because they are helping to support their families. That is especially common among students enrolled in two-year programs, the survey found: Thirty-four percent of those surveyed reported helping out occasionally and 14 percent said they fully financially support their families.

That finding gets to the heart of another provision in Cuomo’s free college tuition plan, which requires students to be enrolled full-time in order to qualify for the scholarship. Cuomo and the plan’s supporters have said that rule is meant to encourage on-time graduation since students enrolled in college full-time are more likely to earn a degree.

But others argue the plan unfairly cuts out students who have to attend school part-time to support family members. While Gould supports Cuomo’s tuition proposal, he understands how holding a job can make it tough to cram a full load of credits into one semester.

Gould has been working full-time to help support his family since his mom lost her job two years ago. His days at school frequently ended in night shifts at a Manhattan hotel. Now he ushers at Madison Square Garden.

Through it all, he’s maintained a 3.0 GPA and is on track to finish school this semester, about five and a half years after he started. That timeline would not have worked under Cuomo’s tuition plan. As currently written, students would have to average 15 credits and, except in limited circumstances, have to finish in four years.

“Honestly, 15 credits would have been impossible,” Gould said.

Levin said the stories of his students and the survey results reveal an important truth: Cuomo’s plan is a great step, but there is more to do going forward.

“I think it’s an incredible plan,” Levin said. “I think what we’ve learned, and what colleges know, is that it takes more than just tuition to get kids through.”

biding time

Strike vote by Denver teachers no longer imminent due to contract extension

PHOTO: Eric Gorski
The bargaining teams from Denver Public Schools and the Denver teachers union at a contract negotiation session in 2017.

Although the Denver school district and its teachers union failed to reach a deal on an overhaul of the district’s pay-for-performance system, the prospect of a strike is less imminent.

Earlier this week, the union’s board of directors authorized a strike vote if a new agreement couldn’t be reached by the time the current one expired at midnight Wednesday.

The two sides couldn’t come to terms on how to change the system, but did reach a different kind of deal: District officials agreed to the union’s request to extend the current pay-for-performance agreement until January 2019 in the hopes that Colorado voters will approve a tax increase in November benefiting schools, making teacher pay raises more likely. However, the union did not take the threat of a strike completely off the table.

A statement from the union, the Denver Classroom Teachers Association, said the union “will begin preparing to take work actions to ensure progress on the new compensation system. If no agreement is reached by the Jan. 18 deadline, DCTA will immediately ask for a strike vote from union members the following day.”

In other districts that have experienced labor conflicts, teachers have picketed, refused to work extra hours, and even waged “sickouts.” The Denver teachers union did not specify the types of work actions they were considering.

Denver Public Schools Superintendent Tom Boasberg said the district was reluctant to sign a ten-month extension, “but in the end, we are prepared to honor their request for more time.”

“We all have a very clear, common goal and common interest around supporting our kids and giving our kids the very best chances to learn and grow,” Boasberg said. “I’m confident that common goal and common aspirations will help us move toward an agreement.”

Denver’s pay-for-performance system, called ProComp, was first piloted in 1999. Under the current agreement, teachers earn a base salary based partly on their level of education and years of experience, and partly on how much training they completed the year before and on the outcome of a yearly evaluation that takes student test scores into account.

Teachers can also earn bonuses and incentives on top of their base salary. This year, for example, teachers who work in a hard-to-serve school with a high percentage of students living in poverty can earn an extra $2,578 per year.

The union wants to make teachers’ paychecks more predictable by moving back to a traditional “steps and lanes” salary schedule in which raises are based on education and experience. Union leaders also want higher base salaries. The union proposed a salary schedule that would pay teachers with a doctorate degree and 20 or more years of experience a base salary of $100,000 with the opportunity to earn a more limited number of incentives on top of that.

The district, meanwhile, proposed a salary schedule that would continue to take teacher evaluations into account when calculating raises but would allow teachers to more significantly build their base salaries for more years. While the union’s proposal shrinks some incentives, the district’s proposal grows the incentive for teaching in a hard-to-serve school.

District officials said the union’s proposal is too expensive. ProComp is funded by a voter-approved tax increase that is expected to raise about $35 million this year. The union’s proposal would cost more than twice as much, district officials said.

Union leaders asked to extend the current agreement until January 2019 in the hopes that Colorado voters approve a proposed ballot measure that would raise $1.6 billion for schools. Backers of the measure, which would increase income taxes for people who earn more than $150,000 per year, are collecting signatures to get it on the November ballot.

Colorado’s Taxpayer’s Bill of Rights requires that voters approve any tax increase. In 2013, voters rejected a school funding tax increase that would have raised $950 million its first year.

Boasberg supports this year’s effort. He’s among the Colorado superintendents pushing for a new, “student centered” school funding formula if the measure passes.

“The entire purpose of that funding measure is to strengthen teacher compensation, decrease class sizes, and improve supports for kids,” Boasberg said. “So if that passes, of course we will eagerly sit down with DCTA to discuss how we strengthen our compensation for teachers.”

On the brink

Denver teachers union leaders vote to call for a strike vote if pay negotiations fail

PHOTO: Marissa Page
Teachers watch a master contract bargaining session between Denver Public Schools and the Denver teachers union on June 22.

The Denver teachers union’s board of directors voted Tuesday to ask its members to strike if the union and the school district fail to reach an agreement Wednesday on teacher pay.

It’s the first time Denver Classroom Teachers Association leaders have taken such a vote since the 1990s, said Corey Kern, the union’s deputy executive director. He said Denver teachers are fed up with the district and inspired by the recent actions of teachers in West Virginia and Oklahoma.

“Teachers don’t think the district is taking them seriously,” Kern said.

Since November, the union and the district have been negotiating an overhaul of Denver Public Schools’ pioneering pay-for-performance system, called ProComp. The current agreement expires at midnight Wednesday. Kern said the union’s preference is “to get a deal done,” but its directors were clear that “if that doesn’t ultimately happen, they will ask for a strike vote.”

Kern said he didn’t know when a strike vote would be held, but it probably wouldn’t happen immediately.

Denver Public Schools officials said in a statement Tuesday they “are committed to reaching an agreement.” If the sides can’t agree Wednesday, the district pledged to continue with the current pay-for-performance system to ensure teachers get their expected pay.

The union has offered a proposal that would pay teachers with a doctorate and 20 years or more of experience a base salary of $100,000.

The current salary schedule goes up to $74,130 for teachers with a doctorate and at least 11 years of experience. Under ProComp, teachers can earn bonuses and incentives on top of that. In 2015-16, the average second-year teacher earned an extra $5,599, according to the district.

In August the district and the union signed a new five-year master contract that included increases in base pay – which the district said were the largest raises in the metro area – and an additional $1,500 for teachers who work in high-poverty schools.

This round of negotiations is for the ProComp agreement, which is separate from the master contract. The district first piloted pay-for-performance in 1999. Voters in 2005 approved a tax increase to fund it. Those taxes will generate about $35 million this year, according to district officials. The last significant redesign of the ProComp system happened in 2008.

The union’s proposal calls for higher base salaries and reduces the size of the incentives teachers can earn for working in hard-to-serve schools or hard-to-fill positions. Union leaders have said teachers want a more predictable pay structure that relies less on bonuses, which can vary year to year.

The district, meanwhile, has suggested increasing some incentives as a way to attract and retain teachers. The district has also suggested providing teachers who earn four years of “distinguished” evaluations with base salary increases equivalent to what they would get for earning a master’s degree.

The union’s proposal to raise the maximum base salary to $100,000 would require more than twice as much money as taxpayers pay into ProComp each year, a district spokeswoman said.

The two sides are set to return to the negotiating table Wednesday morning.